NAME
Sort::XS - a ( very ) fast XS sort alternative for one dimension list
SYNOPSIS
use Sort::XS qw/xsort/;
# use it simply
my $sorted = xsort([1, 5, 3]);
$sorted = [ 1, 3, 5 ];
# personalize your xsort with some options
my $list = [ 1..100, 24..42 ]
my $sorted = xsort( $list ) or ixsort( $list )
or xsort( list => $list )
or xsort( list => $list, algorithm => 'quick' )
or xsort( $list, algorithm => 'quick', type => integer )
or xsort( list => $list, algorithm => 'heap', type => 'integer' )
or xsort( list => $list, algorithm => 'merge', type => 'string' );
# if you [ mainly ] use very small arrays ( ~ 10 rows )
# prefer using directly one of the XS subroutines
$sorted = Sort::XS::quick_sort( $list )
or Sort::XS::heap_sort($list)
or Sort::XS::merge_sort($list)
or Sort::XS::insertion_sort($list);
# sorting array of strings
$list = [ 'kiwi', 'banana', 'apple', 'cherry' ];
$sorted = sxsort( $list )
or sxsort( [ $list ], algorithm => 'quick' )
or sxsort( [ $list ], algorithm => 'heap' )
or sxsort( [ $list ], algorithm => 'merge' );
# use direct XS subroutines to sort array of strings
$sorted = Sort::XS::quick_sort_str( $list )
or Sort::XS::heap_sort_str($list)
or Sort::XS::merge_sort_str($list)
or Sort::XS::insertion_sort_str($list);
DESCRIPTION
This module provides several common sort algorithms implemented as XS.
Sort can only be used on one dimension list of integers or strings.
It's goal is not to replace the internal sort subroutines, but to
provide a better alternative in some specifics cases :
- no need to specify a comparison operator
- sorting a mono dimension list
ALGORITHMS
Quicksort has been chosen as the default method ( even if it s not a
stable algorithm ), you can also consider to use heapsort which provides
a worst case in "n log n".
Choosing the correct algorithm depends on distribution of your values
and size of your list. Quicksort provides an average good solution, even
if in some case it will be better to use a different choice.
quick sort
This is the default algorithm. In pratice it provides the best results
even if in worst case heap sort will be a better choice.
read http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quicksort for more informations
heap sort
A little slower in practice than quicksort but provide a better worst
case runtime.
read http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heapsort for more informations
merge sort
Stable sort algorithm, that means that in any case the time to compute
the result will be similar. It's still a better choice than the internal
perl sort.
read http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mergesort for more informations
insertion sort
Provide one implementation of insertion sort, but prefer using either
any of the previous algorithm or even the perl internal sort.
read http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mergesort for more informations
perl
this is not an algorithm by itself, but provides an easy way to disable
all XS code by switching back to a regular sort.
Perl 5.6 and earlier used a quicksort algorithm to implement sort. That
algorithm was not stable, so could go quadratic. (A stable sort
preserves the input order of elements that compare equal. Although
quicksort's run time is O(NlogN) when averaged over all arrays of length
N, the time can be O(N**2), quadratic behavior, for some inputs.)
In 5.7, the quicksort implementation was replaced with a stable
mergesort algorithm whose worst-case behavior is O(NlogN). But
benchmarks indicated that for some inputs, on some platforms, the
original quicksort was faster.
5.8 has a sort pragma for limited control of the sort. Its rather blunt
control of the underlying algorithm may not persist into future Perls,
but the ability to characterize the input or output in implementation
independent ways quite probably will.
use default perl version
METHODS
xsort
API that allow you to use one of the XS subroutines. Prefer using this
method. ( view optimization section for tricks )
list
provide a reference to an array if only one argument is provided can
be ommit
my $list = [ 1, 3, 2, 5, 4 ];
xsort( $list ) or xsort( list => $list )
algorithm [ optional, default = quick ]
default value is quick you can use any of the following choices
quick # quicksort
heap # heapsort
merge
insertion # not recommended ( slow )
perl # use standard perl sort method instead of c implementation
type [ optional, default = integer ]
You can specify which kind of sort you are expecting ( i.e. '<=>' or
'cmp' ) by setting this attribute to one of these two values
integer # <=>, is the default operator if not specified
string # cmp, do the compare on string
ixsort
alias on xsort method but force type to integer comparison same usage as
xsort
sxsort
alias on xsort method but force type to string comparison same usage as
xsort
quick_sort
XS subroutine to perform the quicksort algorithm. No type checking
performed. Accept only one single argument as input.
my $list = [1, 6, 4, 2, 3, 5 ]
Sort::XS::quick_sort($list);
heap_sort
XS subroutine to perform the heapsort algorithm. No type checking
performed. Accept only one single argument as input.
my $list = [1, 6, 4, 2, 3, 5 ]
Sort::XS::heap_sort($list);
merge_sort
XS subroutine to perform the mergesort algorithm. No type checking
performed. Accept only one single argument as input.
my $list = [1, 6, 4, 2, 3, 5 ]
Sort::XS::merge_sort($list)
insertion_sort
XS subroutine to perform the insertionsort algorithm. No type checking
performed. Accept only one single argument as input.
my $list = [1, 6, 4, 2, 3, 5 ]
Sort::XS::insertion_sort($list);
quick_sort_str
XS subroutine to perform quicksort on array of strings.
Sort::XS::quick_sort_str( [ 'aa' .. 'zz' ] );
heap_sort_str
XS subroutine to perform heapsort on array of strings.
Sort::XS::heap_sort_str( [ 'aa' .. 'zz' ] );
merge_sort_str
XS subroutine to perform mergesort on array of strings.
Sort::XS::merge_sort_str( [ 'aa' .. 'zz' ] );
insertion_sort_str
XS subroutine to perform insertionsort on array of strings.
Sort::XS::insertion_sort_str( [ 'aa' .. 'zz' ] );
OPTIMIZATION
xsort provides an api to call xs subroutines to easy change sort
preferences and an easy way to use it ( adding minimalist type checking
) as it provides an extra layer on the top of xs subroutines it has a
cost... and adds a little more slowness... This extra cost cannot be
noticed on large arrays ( > 100 rows ), but for very small arrays ( ~ 10
rows ) it will not a good idea to use the api ( at least at this stage
). In this case you will prefer to do a direct call to one of the XS
methods to have pure performance.
Note that all the XS subroutines are not exported by default.
my $list = [1, 6, 4, 2, 3, 5 ]
Sort::XS::quick_sort($list);
Sort::XS::heap_sort($list);
Sort::XS::merge_sort($list)
Sort::XS::insertion_sort($list);
Once again, if you use large arrays, it will be better to use API calls
:
xsort([5, 7, 1, 4]);
ixsort([1..10]);
sxsort(['a'..'z']);
BENCHMARK
Here is a glance of what you can expect from this module : These results
have been computed on a set of multiple random arrays generated by the
benchmark test included in the dist testsuite.
Results are splitted in two parts : integers and strings. Here is a
short definition for each label used for these benchmarks.
[ integers ]
* Perl : reference test with perl internal sort sub : sort { $a <=> $b } @array;
* API Perl : use native sort perl method thru API ; xsort(list => $array, algorithm => 'perl');
* API quick : use quicksort via API ; xsort($array);
* API quick with hash : use xsort method with additonnal parameters ; xsort(list => $array, algorithm => 'quick', type => 'integer');
* isort : use isort method from Key::Sort module ;
* isort radix : use isort method from Sort::Key::Radix module ;
* XS heap : direct call to the xs method ; Sort::XS::heap_sort($array);
* XS merge : direct call to the xs method ; Sort::XS::merge_sort($array);
* XS quick : direct call to the xs method ; Sort::XS::quick_sort($array);
* void : a void sub used as baseline
Comparing "Perl" vs "API Perl" or "API quick" vs "XS quick" gives an
idea of the extra cost of the API Perl and void bench are here as a
baseline.
[ strings ]
* Perl : native perl sort method : sort { $a cmp $b } @array;
* API sxsort : use sxsort method ; sxsort($array);
* keysort : use keysort method from Key::Sort module ; keysort { $_ } @$array;
* XS heap : direct call to the xs method ; Sort::XS::heap_sort_str($array);
* XS merge : direct call to the xs method ; Sort::XS::merge_sort_str($array);
* XS quick : direct call to the xs method ; Sort::XS::quick_sort_str($array);
Small arrays
Small arrays are arrays with around 10 elements. benchmark with 1000
arrays of 10 rows
[ integers ] Rate API quick with hash API Perl API quick XS merge isort radix XS quick heap isort void Perl
API quick with hash 130/s -- -7% -67% -74% -77% -78% -78% -80% -83% -84%
API Perl 140/s 7% -- -64% -72% -75% -76% -76% -78% -81% -82%
API quick 390/s 200% 179% -- -22% -31% -33% -33% -39% -48% -51%
XS merge 502/s 287% 260% 29% -- -11% -13% -14% -21% -33% -37%
isort radix 564/s 335% 304% 45% 12% -- -3% -3% -11% -25% -29%
XS quick 580/s 346% 315% 49% 15% 3% -- -0% -9% -23% -27%
heap 581/s 348% 317% 49% 16% 3% 0% -- -9% -23% -27%
isort 636/s 390% 356% 63% 27% 13% 10% 9% -- -15% -20%
void 752/s 479% 439% 93% 50% 33% 30% 29% 18% -- -5%
Perl 794/s 512% 469% 104% 58% 41% 37% 37% 25% 6% --
[ sting ] Rate API sxsort keysort Perl XS merge XS heap XS quick
API sxsort 106/s -- -8% -59% -59% -62% -63%
keysort 116/s 9% -- -55% -55% -58% -60%
Perl 260/s 145% 124% -- -0% -7% -10%
XS merge 260/s 145% 124% 0% -- -7% -10%
XS heap 278/s 162% 140% 7% 7% -- -4%
XS quick 289/s 172% 149% 11% 11% 4% --
Medium arrays
A mixed of arrays with 10, 100 and 1000 rows. ( 10 arrays of each size,
maybe this should match most common usages ? ).
[ integers ] Rate API Perl Perl XS merge isort heap API quick with hash API quick XS quick isort radix void
API Perl 429/s -- -13% -16% -20% -24% -25% -33% -35% -40% -73%
Perl 493/s 15% -- -4% -8% -12% -14% -23% -25% -32% -68%
XS merge 511/s 19% 4% -- -5% -9% -11% -20% -22% -29% -67%
isort 536/s 25% 9% 5% -- -5% -7% -16% -18% -26% -66%
heap 562/s 31% 14% 10% 5% -- -2% -12% -14% -22% -64%
API quick with hash 575/s 34% 17% 13% 7% 2% -- -10% -12% -20% -63%
API quick 638/s 48% 29% 25% 19% 13% 11% -- -3% -12% -59%
XS quick 657/s 53% 33% 29% 23% 17% 14% 3% -- -9% -58%
isort radix 722/s 68% 46% 41% 35% 28% 25% 13% 10% -- -54%
void 1562/s 264% 217% 206% 191% 178% 172% 145% 138% 117% --
[ sting ] Rate keysort API sxsort Perl XS heap XS merge XS quick
keysort 770/s -- -47% -48% -57% -57% -62%
API sxsort 1450/s 88% -- -2% -19% -20% -28%
Perl 1476/s 92% 2% -- -18% -18% -27%
XS heap 1790/s 132% 23% 21% -- -1% -11%
XS merge 1806/s 135% 25% 22% 1% -- -10%
XS quick 2017/s 162% 39% 37% 13% 12% --
Sorting arrays of 100.000 rows
Rate API Perl Perl isort heap XS merge XS quick API quick with hash API quick isort radix void
API Perl 3.03/s -- -1% -6% -22% -24% -42% -42% -43% -59% -82%
Perl 3.07/s 1% -- -5% -21% -23% -41% -41% -43% -58% -82%
isort 3.21/s 6% 5% -- -18% -20% -38% -39% -40% -56% -81%
heap 3.90/s 29% 27% 21% -- -2% -25% -25% -27% -47% -77%
XS merge 4.00/s 32% 30% 24% 2% -- -23% -24% -25% -46% -76%
XS quick 5.20/s 72% 70% 62% 33% 30% -- -1% -3% -30% -69%
API quick with hash 5.23/s 73% 71% 63% 34% 31% 1% -- -2% -29% -69%
API quick 5.36/s 77% 75% 67% 37% 34% 3% 2% -- -27% -68%
isort radix 7.39/s 144% 141% 130% 89% 85% 42% 41% 38% -- -56%
void 16.9/s 459% 453% 427% 334% 323% 226% 224% 216% 129% --
Large arrays
Sorting arrays of 1.000.000 rows.
[ integers ] Rate API Perl Perl isort heap XS merge isort radix XS quick API quick API quick with hash void
API Perl 1.75/s -- -0% -22% -40% -48% -48% -61% -61% -62% -89%
Perl 1.76/s 0% -- -22% -40% -47% -48% -61% -61% -62% -89%
isort 2.25/s 28% 28% -- -23% -33% -33% -49% -50% -51% -86%
heap 2.94/s 67% 67% 30% -- -12% -13% -34% -35% -36% -82%
XS merge 3.35/s 91% 90% 49% 14% -- -1% -25% -25% -27% -79%
isort radix 3.37/s 92% 92% 50% 15% 1% -- -24% -25% -26% -79%
XS quick 4.46/s 154% 154% 98% 52% 33% 32% -- -1% -3% -73%
API quick 4.48/s 156% 155% 99% 53% 34% 33% 1% -- -2% -72%
API quick with hash 4.57/s 161% 160% 103% 56% 37% 36% 3% 2% -- -72%
void 16.2/s 826% 824% 621% 453% 385% 382% 264% 262% 255% --
[ sting ] Rate Perl XS heap XS merge API sxsort XS quick
Perl 0.698/s -- -17% -47% -52% -52%
XS heap 0.836/s 20% -- -37% -43% -43%
XS merge 1.32/s 90% 58% -- -10% -10%
API sxsort 1.46/s 110% 75% 11% -- -0%
XS quick 1.47/s 110% 76% 11% 0% --
CONTRIBUTE
You can contribute to this project via GitHub :
https://github.com/atoomic/Sort-XS
TODO
Implementation of float comparison... At this time only implement sort
of integers and strings
Improve API performance for small set of arrays : could use enum and
array to speedup API. C algorithms can be also tuned.
AUTHOR
Nicolas R.,
CONTRIBUTORS
Salvador Fandi–o
SEE ALSO
Also consider the modules Sort::Key and Sort::Key::Radix, that provide a
different API but that can sort faster on many common usage.
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
This software is copyright (c) 2011 by eboxr.
This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.