NAME
Math::LinearCombination - sum of variables with a numerical coefficient
SYNOPSIS
use Math::LinearCombination;
use Math::SimpleVariable; # for the variable objects
# build a linear combination
my $x1 = new Math::SimpleVariable(name => 'x1');
my $x2 = new Math::SimpleVariable(name => 'x2');
my $lc = new Math::LinearCombination();
$lc->add_entry(var => $x1, coeff => 3.0);
$lc->add_entry(var => $x2, coeff => 1.7);
$lc->add_entry(var => $x2, coeff => 0.3); # so x2 has a coefficient of 2.0
print $lc->stringify(), "\n";
# do some manipulations
$lc->negate_inplace(); # reverts the coefficient signs
$lc->multiply_with_constant_inplace(2.0); # doubles all coefficients
# evaluate the linear combination
$x1->{value} = 3;
$x2->{value} = -1;
print $lc->evaluate(), "\n"; # prints -14
DESCRIPTION
Math::LinearCombination is a module for representing mathematical linear
combinations of variables, i.e. expressions of the format
a1 * x1 + a2 * x2 + ... + an * xn
with x1, x2, ..., xn variables, and a1, a2, ..., an numerical
coefficients. Evaluation and manipulation of linear combinations is also
supported. The numerical coefficients a_i and variables x_i are stored
as pairs in an internal data structure and should not be manipulated
directly. All access and manipulation should be performed through the
methods.
It is important to note that no specific class is required for the
variable objects. You can provide objects of any class, provided that
the following methods are defined on those objects:
name()
returning a string with the variable name.
id()
returning a unique identifier for that variable. For most
applications it will suffice to have id() invoke name().
evaluate()
returning a numerical evaluation of the variable.
The Math::LinearCombination class was designed together with
Math::SimpleVariable. The latter supports all the required methods, and
it is thus logical to use only Math::SimpleVariable objects in your
linear combinations, or brew your own class which is derived from
Math::SimpleVariable.
The following methods are available for Math::LinearCombination objects:
$lc = new Math::SimpleVariable([$other_lc])
constructs a new Math::SimpleVariable object. An existing
Math::SimpleVariable object can be passed to it optionally, in which
case a clone of that object is returned. (see also the clone()
method).
$lc = make Math::SimpleVariable($x1,$a1,$x2,$a2,...)
also constructs a new Math::SimpleVariable object, but additionally
initializes it with variable-coefficient pairs x_i, a_i. The number
of arguments should thus be even, and the variable objects need to
obey the requirements imposed on variables.
$lc->clone()
returns an exact copy of $lc, with none of the variables or
coefficients shared. I.e. you can change the contents of the new
(old) linear combination without any impact on the old (new) one.
$lc->add_entry('var' => $x, 'coeff' => $a)
adds the variable $x to the linear combination with $a as
coefficient. add_entry() throws an error when a variable with the
same id() is already present in the linear combination. So do not
use add_entry() for adding linear combinations, but use
add_inplace() or the '+' operator (see below) instead.
$ra_entries = $lc->get_entries()
returns a ref to a hash with all the entries of the linear
combination. The hash is sorted on the id() of the variables, and
each entry is a ref to a hash with the following fields:
var the variable object
coeff
the numerical coefficient
@vars = $lc->get_variables()
returns an array with all the variable objects in the linear
combination. get_variables() is context aware, so you can invoke it
as
$ra_vars = $lc->get_variables
to return a reference to the array of variables instead. The
variables are sorted on their id().
@coeffs = $lc->get_coefficients()
same as get_variables(), but returns the coefficients instead. The
coefficients are also sorted on the id() of the corresponding
variables.
$lc->add_inplace($lc2)
mathematically adds the Math::LinearCombination object $lc2 to $lc
and returns the changed $lc.
$sum = $lc->add($lc2)
mathematically adds $lc2 to $lc. The result is stored in a newly
created Math::LinearCombination object. Both $lc and $lc2 are left
in the same state as before.
$lc->negate_inplace()
inverts the sign of the coefficient for each variable in the linear
combination.
$diff = $lc->subtract($lc2)
mathematically subtracts $lc2 from $lc. The results is stored in a
newly created Math::LinearCombination object. Both $lc and $lc2 are
left in the same state as before.
$lc->multiply_with_constant_inplace($c)
multiplies each coefficient in $lc with the numerical constant $c.
$prod = $lc->mult($lc2)
mathematically multiplies $lc with $lc2. The result is stored in a
newly created Math::LinearCombination object. Both $lc and $lc2 are
left in the same state as before.
$quot = $lc->div($c)
divides $lc by the numerical constant $c. The result is stored in a
newly created Math::LinearCombination object. $lc is left in the
same state as before. Note that it is not possible to divide a
linear combination by another linear combination, as the result is
generally not a linear combination.
$eval = $lc->evaluate()
evaluates the linear combination $lc numerically, using the values
of the variables obtained by invoking evaluate() on them.
$lc->remove_zeroes()
removes all variable-coefficient pairs with zero coefficients from
the linear combination. This method is used internally in the
methods above, so normally you should never need it.
$lc->stringify()
returns a string representing the linear combination. Returns '0.0'
for empty linear combinations.
In order to make the mathematical manipulation of linear combinations
less verbose, a number of operators have been overloaded to use the
methods above. The overloaded operators are:
'+' for adding two linear combinations;
'-' for subtracting two linear combinations;
'*' for multiplying two linear combinations;
'/' for dividing a linear combination by a number;
and '""' for stringifying a linear combination, i.e. you can use a
linear combination objects in any place where interpolation of
variables is possible and get the string representation.
SEE ALSO
perl(1)
the Math::SimpleVariable manpage
VERSION
This is CVS $Revision: 1.2 $ of Math::LinearCombination, last edited at
$Date: 2001/10/31 12:57:26 $.
AUTHOR
Wim Verhaegen
COPYRIGHT
Copyright (C) 2001 Wim Verhaegen. All rights reserved. This program is
free software; you may redistribute and/or modify it under the same
terms as Perl itself.